Femoral-acetabular impingement syndrome (FAI)
The repetition of these premature and repeated contacts can be the cause of damage to the acetabular labrum and articular cartilage, which can lead to the appearance of osteoarthritis of the hip.
Early diagnosis is essential. We now know this condition is a precursor to osteoarthritis. Arthroscopy or arthrotomy (when indicated) are the standard treatments today. The clinical results are reliable if intervention is early, before the onset of osteoarthritis lesions.
The population at risk of developing this syndrome is young adults practicing sports like martial arts, football, rugby, hockey, or dance. In general, all sports that require forced hip flexion are at risk.
The most common symptoms of FAI include pain, stiffness, and limping. Pain often occurs in the groin area.The clinical assessment will reproduce the pain in flexion, adduction and internal rotation.
Position inducing FAI
Imaging will help to confirm the diagnosis of FAI. This include X-rays, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Typically the X-ray will show the bump at the junction between the neck and the head of the femur.
Bone overgrowth at the head/neck junction
When the pain is not relieved with conservative (non-surgical) treatment, surgical treatment may be recommended. This can be done either by arthroscopy or open surgery.
Surgical procedure to remove femoral boneovergrowth
Surgical procedure to remove acetabular bone overgrowth
During surgery, the FAI is corrected by trimming the bony rim of the acetabulum and shaving down the bump on the femoral head.